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Tuesday, September 8, 2015

Considering Ash in Bead Furnaces





One of the recurring problems the DARC bead making team has experienced is ash scars on the beads we make with various Viking Age type bead furnaces.

If readers are not familiar, you should spend a bit of time over on the main DARC web site - the area detailing our ongoing experimentation into Norse glass bead production :

http://www.darkcompany.ca/beads/index.php

It should be noted that Neil Peterson is the primary lead on this experimental archaeology project. (I only contribute as the 'fire guy', primarily on furnace design, with at least a basic level of skill with glass bead making itself)

As a (very!) brief overview :
• Plentiful archaeological remains at several Viking Age trade centre / town sites show that the Norse certainly made glass beads.
• 'Waste' remains do hint at some of the possible methods used to make individual beads.
• Raw glass itself does seem to be an imported material.
However :
Artifact remains are almost entirely limited to completed beads (graves) or waste products.
• There are only a very few actual glass bead making * tools * that have been recovered.
• There are no compete bead making furnaces. All that have been found are a very few clay 'bases' - that may (or may not!) suggest possible furnace dimensions.
All this, as practical workers, leaves us with a huge number of unanswered questions. (Summary of 'Questions & Answers' by Neil )

The experimental series has mainly concentrated on a couple of primary concerns:
• How do you build and operate a small charcoal fired furnace that allows you to effectively make beads similar to the ones known from the Viking Age?
• What is the superstructure for that kind of furnace - as defined by the remaining 'base plates'?

I have commented before concerning possible *effective* furnace design. (Admittedly, these based on my understanding of iron smelting furnaces and charcoal blacksmith forges.) :

Wednesday, October 10, 2012


"Bottle" Bead Furnace

*******************

The following is taken from an ongoing conversation Neil and I have been having about furnace design with an eye to reducing ash scarring. (As further background, Neil is proposing a series of tests that will produced measurable records of ash loading in the working area of the furnace.)

On 31/08/15 2:26 PM, Neil Peterson wrote:
... In passing on Sat you mentioned that chimney shape shouldn't impact ash.

Would you care to elaborate?  Feel free to suggest chimney ideas you think I should look into for this cycle.
You asked - much of this may be obvious to you

the ash produced ?
A given volume / mass of charcoal will produce a fixed amount of ash.
This will be a variable related I suspect most directly to wood type.
It may be effected by available air supply. (ie complete vs incomplete combustion)
It may be effected by actual temperature inside the furnace.

Wiki gives : "Typically between 0.43 and 1.82 percent of the mass of burned wood (dry basis ) results in ash " (this is talking about *wood* - not charcoal however). Likely this exact number can be researched (or close enough).
Given that in our case the wood type is not highly variable (usually oak or maple, standard sources).
The volume of the furnace is fixed (although changes between builds)
We are attempting to maximize temperature - kind of. Here we are balancing between duration and a fixed high temperature. To date we have been adjusting air volume to create what we consider an optimal temperature - of the exhaust gas (not necessarily the core burning temperatures, which I am not sure have been measured?)

So - we have an element to consider, which is particles over time.
1 kg charcoal yields 10 gm of ash (WAG) / complete burn time
Divide that by limited time that it takes to make a bead.

More important here is 'lofting' - how much ash is lifted into the expelled gases.
Generally we should have air input = gas output. (Scientifically there is some waggle here, based on relative volume of the elements in air against elements in the hot gas. I would think that not significant!)
Not *all* the ash produced is lofted. Much is trapped inside the remaining pile of charcoal inside the furnace.
This is especially true if there is a volume of 'non reacting' charcoal above the burning zone. This will be acting somewhat as a filter to trap particles.
Honestly, I think this is likely the major consideration. Bench test - compare ash visible in exhaust between start and end of a load cycle. Comparison test - how much ash is expelled from a smelting furnace (with about 40 cm of charcoal 'filter' above the combustion area)
Design implication? Build furnaces with a larger 'reaction area' - basically increase the bottom chamber height. (I did notice most of the builds others did on Saturday were very low furnaces - I expect these will have short effective working cycles, need more frequent loading, result in more ash in the exhaust.)

The other possible effect would be ash expelled from the reaction area, but because of height of the chimney below the working area for bead making, ash can settle back down into the chamber.
The core idea here is possibly increasing the chimney height.
I'm not so sure about this, as the ash particles are extremely light - and the air flow input is likely more than enough pressure / volume to still lift those a long way.
Increasing the distance or the complexity of the pathway of exhaust gas on its way out of the furnace may present a solution. The core problem here is doing this without loosing so much heat that the exhaust temperature drops below our needs.

The simplest way to construct a 'long chimney' would be with a tall, cylindrical furnace.
Primary problem is heat loss. There is the surface area (radiation loss) over internal volume ratio problem.
You might also use an internal set of baffels. This would in effect create an upper chamber with the
baffels above a lower chamber which in effect becomes a fire box. The upper chamber would suffer less heat loss - especially since one surface would be directly above the burning charcoal.
Primary problem here is complexity of construction.

Standard Bellows - actually based on that for Blacksmith's Forge.

In either case, one other consideration might be the air source. I'm not sure we are getting the correct balance between force and volume. Again our historic use is via a blacksmith's (speculative) equipment. I have certainly noticed massive variations in force and regularity of stroke between users. I think this is significant in terms of ash movement. What you desire is a slow, extremely even blow of constant pressure. It may be that a bag as a kind of regulator might be indicated.

It also would be valuable to have measurements 'in line' for air volume and pressure.
I would also suggest that input air from mechanical sources be controlled via an electrical controller (light dimmer) or a sliding gate of some. Both with markings at least relative - and repeatable.

What I meant about  'chimney shape not mattering' was an oversimplification and  short form. I think the elements given above are much more significant. There are theoretical considerations on shape (round / square) that likely do not come into play on this scale.
To my understanding, in large scale buildings, this is more to do with construction abilities than effects.
There is the 'passive draw' effect - which is a function of height, and does not apply here (scale again).
There will be some 'settling effect' - ash falling down after a certain distance. I think this also relates to reduced temperature due to cooling effects of the stack walls. Certainly NOT what we want here.
There is a 'lofting' effect - basically a tall stack distributes the same ash over a wider fall area (so reducing the individual point by point impact). Again not our concern.

We are more concerned with heat concentration - maintaining  a specific temperature at the stack mouth. A much wider chimney opening would certainly reduce the amount of ash present at a specific point location inside that opening. It would also be spreading the available heat energy out - certainly not a desirable effect in this case.

Without guidance from archaeology, anything we do is so speculative anyway.

Monday, August 17, 2015

DARC at ICMS 2016 (Kalamazoo)

DARC will be hosting a session at ICMS 2016 in Kalamazoo in May 2016.  |If you have been doing exarc and want to talk about it, we'd love to hear from you.  Note that a written paper is *NOT* required.
 
Archaeology & Experiment: Moving beyond the artifacts (papers)
Experimental archaeology moves beyond the artifacts, allowing researchers to examine the underlying question of "how" related to artifact finds.  Ideally, experiments can provide a preliminary answer to the question "Does this theory of how it was done actually work". A keystone of experimental archaeology (and a differentiator from reenactment/recreation) is that it follows the scientific method of question, setup, and result - whether that result is positive or negative.  Presentations in this session will be expected to review all three key elements in the discussion of their paper.  Papers submitted for these sessions would be good candidates for publication in the EXARC Journal.

Saturday, February 7, 2015

Experimental Archaeology and Iron Smelting at L'AM

Experimental Archaeology and the recreation of the Viking Era Smelt at L'Anse aux Meadows, NHSC

Investigations of the archaeological site at L'Anse aux Meadows, Newfoundland, indicate local bog iron ore was smelted into workable metal, at least once, by the Norse some time about 1000 AD. Just why the first iron smelt in North America was carried out remains open to interpretation. Starting in 2009, a team from Ontario, Canada, conducted a series of five experiments, culminating on a full re-creation of the original Norse iron smelt at L'Anse aux Meadows NHSC in August of 2010. Experimental archaeology was used to aid in reconstructing the tools and processes involved in both that specific smelt and Viking era iron smelting in general.  Neil will walk through the archaeology, and the experimental sequences involved that led to the 2010 replication of that smelt.

A lecture by Neil Peterson for the Hamilton chapter of the Ontario Archaeological Society.

7pm - Thursday Feb 19th, Fieldcote Museum in Ancaster, ON

Visitors are welcome.

Tuesday, July 1, 2014

DARC at ICMS 2015

DARC was approved to host two sessions at the ICMS in May.

Archaeology & Experiment: Moving beyond the artifacts (papers)
Experimental archaeology moves beyond the artifacts, allowing researchers to examine the underlying question of "how" related to artifact finds.  Ideally, experiments can provide a preliminary answer to the question "Does this theory of how it was done actually work". A keystone of experimental archaeology (and a differentiator from reenactment/recreation) is that it follows the scientific method of question, setup, and result - whether that result is positive or negative.  Presentations in this session will be expected to review all three key elements in the discussion of their paper.  Papers submitted for these sessions would be good candidates for publication in the EXARC Journal.


Archaeology Unearthed: Hands on history demonstrations
 Many literary scholars see history in isolation from the artifacts and processes of the period under study. Adding a demonstration of techniques and technologies that have been understood or reproduced using Experimental Archaeological methods allows attendees of ICMS to enhance their appreciation of the underlying artifacts and technologies.  This session will showcase 2-4 technologies allowing session attendees to circulate among the demonstrations and discuss them with the presenters. 

If you would like to present in either session please reach out to Neil to discuss the topics....

Sunday, June 29, 2014

Snorri at ICMS-14

a bit dated...
At one of many evening open bar receptions...

Helping in the Wareham Forge sales booth.

Thursday, June 5, 2014

DARC at UCV - this weekend!

DARC at Upper Canada Village Medieval Festival

Saturday June 7
Sunday June 8
Monday June 9 (Education Day)

Morrisburg, Ontario

The Dark Ages Re-Creation Company will be mounting a presentation of daily life / life of the artisan during the Viking Age as part of the larger Medieval Festival at Upper Canada Village this weekend.

The core of the DARC living history presentation will be two complete 'camp' set ups, illustrating aspects of daily life, including domestic tasks centred on food preparation. Additionally, there will be four primary working artisan demonstrations ongoing :
Textiles (spinning / weaving / related fibre arts)
Blacksmithing
Glass Bead Making
Green Woodworking (spring pole lathe)




Images above from DARC's 2013 presentation

 Event Web Site

Official Press Release

Wednesday, February 26, 2014

Activities for Young Norse - One

1a. Activities for 5 years olds
    Posted by:  rosie5823 to the Norsefolk discussion group
    Date: Tue Feb 25, 2014 2:19 pm ((PST))

Does anyone have any suggestions as to what activities would be suitable (and safe) for 5 years old boys to do whilst in costume?
DARC has had a fair amount of experience with public demonstrations. We 
centre on daily life and the craftsman, and also are using both full 
role playing (floating interpretive level presentation of characters and viewpoints), and fairly high authenticity standards. 

Kadja & Unn - Norstead 2000
One of the single most engrossing activities for younger visitors has related to water. We are well equipped with cooperage. A major task in any 'working' day is hauling water, for which we have a couple of yokes and lots of buckets and pails.


One of our team interprets the character of a 'household slave', and she undertakes a number of tasks related to this every presentation day. Gathering a bunch of kids to 'help' bring water from source back into camp always works well. We have a number of both pails and buckets with wooden lids that keeps water in the container, rather than on the carrier.

Volunteer Helper - L'Anse aux Meadows 2010

Related to that is washing up. We have a large tub especially for this. Three primary tasks : washing the dishes after meals, washing selected clothing, washing fleece as part of the textile preparation series.
Kadja - L'Anse aux Meadows 2012
Kids love to play in water - and the whole series of getting the water, doing the task, dumping the waste water - all re-enforces how much raw labour is required for the simplest task.

There are images related to all this on the DARC web site. Check the various museum presentation descriptions, especially at L'Anse aux Meadows for Parks Canada.

First image - Darrell Markewitz, Remainder by Paul Halsz